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对宠物的敏感和接触:对美国人群哮喘发病率的影响

2017/11/20

   摘要
   背景:虽然超过50%的美国家庭都饲养宠物,但是宠物过敏原暴露对美国人群哮喘发病率的影响并没有被很好地记录。
   目的:探讨狗和猫过敏原暴露对美国人群哮喘发病率的影响。
   方法:选取全国健康和营养检查调查作为美国平民人口的代表性样本。对6岁或大于6岁的所有参与者的哮喘、在卧室粉尘中狗和猫过敏原水平以及狗和猫的特异性IgE进行分析。
   结果:在美国饲养宠物是很常见的,有超过50%的家庭饲养狗或猫或二者兼有。在全国健康和营养检查调查人群中,对狗和猫的过敏敏感性的普遍度是相似的,二者都大约12%。对于那些已经致敏的人,暴露在高浓度的宠物过敏原与哮喘和哮喘发作的发病率的增加有关。事实上,44.2%的已经对狗过敏原敏感的哮喘患者的哮喘发作是由于暴露于卧室粉尘中狗过敏原水平的增加,30.3%已经对猫过敏原敏感的哮喘患者的哮喘发作是由于暴露于卧室粉尘中猫过敏原水平的增加。这些结果表明,在美国人群中每年有超过100万的哮喘患者的哮喘发作的增加与对狗过敏原的暴露增加有关,每年有超过50万的哮喘患者的哮喘发作的增加与对猫过敏原的暴露增加有关。
   结论:对于那些已经致敏的哮喘患者,暴露于高浓度的狗和猫过敏原与哮喘发作次数的增加有关。减少宠物过敏原暴露有可能显著降低哮喘发病率。

 
(中日友好医院呼吸与危重症医学科 禹汶伯 摘译 林江涛 审校)
(J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2017 Jul 7. pii: S2213-2198(17)30381-1. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2017.05.019. [Epub ahead of print])

 
 
 
Sensitization and Exposure to Pets: The Effect on Asthma Morbidity in the US Population.
 
Gergen PJ1, Mitchell HE2, Calatroni A2, Sever ML2, Cohn RD3, Salo PM4, Thorne PS5, Zeldin DC4.
 
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Although pets are found in more than 50% of US homes, the effect of pet allergen exposure on asthma morbidity in the US population is not well documented.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of dog and cat allergen exposures on asthma morbidity in the US population.
METHODS: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey is a representative sample of civilian US population. Data on asthma, dog and cat allergen levels in bedroom dust, as well as specific IgE to dog and cat were analyzed for all participants 6 years or older.
RESULTS: Pets are common in the United States, with more than 50% of households having a dog or a cat or both. The prevalence of allergic sensitization in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey population was similar for dog and cat, with both being approximately 12%. Among those who were sensitized, exposure to elevated levels of pet allergens was associated with an increased prevalence of asthma and asthma attacks. Indeed, 44.2% of the asthma attacks were attributable to exposure to high levels of dog allergen in the bedroom among patients with asthma sensitive to dog and 30.3% were attributable to cat allergen exposure among the comparable cat-sensitive and exposed group. Projecting these results to the US population indicates more than 1 million increased asthma attacks each year for the dog-sensitive and exposed group and more than 500,000 increased asthma attacks for the cat-sensitive and exposed population of patients with asthma.
CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to elevated levels of dog and cat allergens among those sensitized individuals with asthma is associated with excess asthma attacks. Reducing pet allergen exposures has the potential for a significant decrease in asthma morbidity.


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